From Planning To Prosecution: Criminal Conspiracy Under IPC

March 28, 2024
Criminal Conspiracy under IPC

Criminal conspiracy is a serious offense that threatens social order and law. In India, individuals who engage in conspiracy operations to commit crimes may face prosecution against the Indian Penal Code (IPC). The procedure of deconstructing a criminal conspiracy encompasses complex legally binding processes and concepts from the very beginning of preparation to the ultimate prosecution.

Criminal Conspiracy under IPC

  • According to Section 120A of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, according to the conspiracy crime definition, a criminal conspiracy is formed when two or more people decide to carry out an illegal conduct or an act that is not illegal but is carried out by illegal methods.
  • With the caveat that no agreement, aside from an agreement to commit an offense, shall qualify as a criminal conspiracy unless one or more parties to the agreement do a deed to advance the terms of the agreement.
  • In most cases as per conspiracy in law, the offender is prosecuted under the Indian Penal Code, 1860, or any other applicable statute with the crime of criminal conspiracy in addition to another substantive offense.
  • Criminal conspiracy is covered by the Indian Penal Code, 1860, Chapter V-A, which was added in 1913.

Conspiracy Crime Examples

  • A conspiracy accusation could be brought against two persons who decide to kill someone and purchase the necessary weapons for a conspiracy act. Even in the event that they never carry out the plan to kill the victim, they are still charged with conspiracy.

Conspiracy In Criminal Law: Important Ingredients

  • A minimum of two individuals are required to plot a conspiracy commit crime.
  • In order to commit a criminal act or an act that is not illegal by illegal methods, one must have joint bad intent.
  • The agreement may be expressed clearly, subtly, or in part in both ways. The conspiracy begins at the moment the agreement is formed and the crime is committed. 
  • As long as the combination is present, the same offense is kept up.

Kinds Of Conspiracy In Criminal Law

Some of the common kinds of conspiracy in criminal law are as follows:

  • General Conspiracy: When a number of individuals decide to carry out any illegal conduct, this is perhaps the most basic type of conspiracy. Whether or not the intended crime is carried out, the agreement itself suffices to establish the offense.
  • Specific Conspiracy: A specific conspiracy refers to when there is an agreement to carry out a particular offense or illegal act. Everyone engaged is in agreement concerning the specifics of the offense they are going to commit.
  • Murder Conspiracy: When a number of individuals decide to murder each other. This may include planning the crime, offering support, or establishing the tools needed for committing it.

Criminal Conspiracy Punishment

As per the conspiracy charge meaning

  • If there is no specific provision in the Indian Penal Code, 1860 for the punishment of such a conspiracy, then anyone found guilty of participating in a criminal conspiracy to commit an offence punishable by death, life imprisonment, or rigorous imprisonment for a term of two years or more will be punished as though they had assisted in the commission of the offence, according to Section 120B of the Indial Penal Code.
  • Any individual involved in a criminal conspiracy that is not related to a criminal conspiracy to commit an offense listed above faces a maximum sentence of six months in either type of jail, a fine, or both.

criminal conspiracy case laws

  • In the case of Kehar Singh and others v State, the most crucial component of the crime of conspiracy, according to the Honourable Supreme Court’s ruling in this case, is the consent of two or more individuals to carry out a criminal conduct. The agreement itself constitutes an offense and is punishable, regardless of whether the unlawful act is carried out in accordance with it or not.
  • In the case of Param Hans Yadav v State of Bihar, it has been noted that it is challenging to substantiate conspiracy accusations with direct evidence; instead, the prosecution must demonstrate the connection between the many chain events in order to prove criminal conspiracy.

According to the Indian Penal Code (IPC), criminal conspiracy is a serious offense for which a person found guilty faces harsh penalties. A criminal conspiracy is defined as when two or more people come to an agreement to do an illegal act and have the aim of bringing about that illegal act.

The legal concepts pertaining to criminal conspiracy have been clarified through a number of significant instances throughout the years, which have also given courts direction when handling criminal conspiracy cases.

Criminal Conspiracy Under IPC FAQs

Can the agreement be oral or written in criminal conspiracy?

A criminal conspiracy requires an agreement between two or more people as its primary component. The core of the offense is this agreement, which may be verbal or written, explicit or tacit.

What is criminal conspiracy and common intention?

According to Section 34 of the IPC, if multiple people commit a crime with the same intent, each of them is responsible for the entire crime as if they had committed it alone.

Is criminal conspiracy a continuing offence?

Anytime one of the conspirators commits an act or set of facts, it is a conspiracy, which is an ongoing crime.

Is criminal conspiracy an inchoate offence?

When two or more persons decide to carry out an illegal crime and take some action toward its accomplishment, it is called a conspiracy. Because it does not need the commission of the illegal act, conspiracy is an inchoate offence.

What is the minimum number of persons required for conspiracy?

The engagement of two or more people is one of the primary conditions for the criminal conspiracy offense.

What is the difference between criminal conspiracy and abetment?

Whereas conspiracy by abetment involves one person actively planning and another actively carrying out the criminal act, criminal conspiracy involves all parties actively preparing and carrying out the criminal act.

What is the punishment for criminal conspiracy under IPC?

The punishment for criminal conspiracy under IPC is six months in jail, a fine, or both; non-cognizable; liable; trial by first-class magistrate; non-compoundable.

Which of the following is an essential element of a criminal conspiracy?

An agreement between two or more persons to do an illegal act, or an act that is not illegal but is done illegally, is the first and most crucial element of a criminal conspiracy.

What is an example of abetment by conspiracy?

If A encourages B to kill C and B declines, A will be found guilty of aiding and abetting the murder. Similar to this, B stabs C to death at A’s request, but C survives since the wound was not deep enough to kill him. A is guilty of helping B carry out the murder.

Is conspiracy an agreement between two or more persons to commit an unlawful act?

When two or more people come together, make a plan to break the law, and then carry out that plan, that is when a conspiracy occurs. In order to address the risks that society faces when individuals band together and conspire to commit crimes, the crime of conspiracy was established.

Which section is defined as criminal conspiracy?

According to Section 120A of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, a criminal conspiracy is formed when two or more people decide to carry out an illegal conduct or an act that is not illegal but is carried out by illegal methods.

Read our latest blog: Mischief under IPC

With the goal of giving students the best coaching available for law entrance exams including the CLAT, AILET, and various other numerous state judiciary exams, Jyoti Judiciary Coaching, India’s Finest educational Platform, was established. Come enrol now with Jyoti Judiciary!

For any latest news, legal topics, judiciary exams notifications, patterns, etc watch Jyoti Judiciary’s YouTube channel for legal videos for any updates at

Leave a Comment