May 28, 2024

In the complicated world of law, where disputes frequently stem from misunderstandings, scepticism, and miscommunications, there is a quiet but powerful idea referred to as the Doctrine of Estoppel. This idea, although it is subtle, is crucial for the formation of binding agreements and for preserving the principles of fairness and equality between the parties. The basic objective is to stop individuals from reversing statements or truths that they have previously stated, whether through actions, words, or silence.         

define estoppel

  • As perthe doctrine of estoppel meaning, it is the legal provision that forbids someone from providing misleading testimony by keeping them from making contradictory claims in court.
  • The aim of this estoppel philosophy is to prevent an individual from deceiving another individual.

doctrine of estoppel: Nature and Scope

  • Rule of evidence: It is assumed that there are certain parallels between this rule and the idea of the theory of estoppel in law that cannot be contested or refuted. This notion is crucial because it prohibits a person from retracting a statement that he has admitted to being true in the past. Furthermore, because of the two evidentiary qualities of an estoppel, this concept can be distinguished from the norm.
  • Matter of Pleading: Subject to the exception to the rule that information can only be pleaded and not the evidence within normal circumstances, this point requires the party to declare the relevant fact in his pleading along with the grounds that led him to depend on the doctrine of estoppel in his issue.
  • Substantive Law: Because this theory deals with the process of a case, it falls under substantive law rather than procedural law. It may serve as a defense and support arguments for equitable remedy if the plaintiff is unable to produce the necessary documentation or facts. As a result, it qualifies as a substantive law.

estoppel example 

  • After making a purchase, the client brings the clothing home. Nevertheless, the buyer suggests returning the clothing to the seller, depending on the verbal assurance from the seller. In this case, the vendor is estopped to accept the clothes back.        

doctrine of estoppel: Conditions for Application

To apply the doctrine of estoppel, the following requirements must be met:

  • One individual must make the representation to another one.
  • The statement must be based on the facts, not the legislation.
  • It is necessary to make the representation based on an actual fact.
  • The representation needs to be given in a way that persuades the other person that it is accurate.
  • The individual receiving the representation ought to follow through on that conviction.
  • The person to whom the representation is intended should lose out as a result of it.

doctrine of estoppel: Types

  • Collateral Estoppel: A collateral estoppel prohibits a party from re-filing a complaint with the court. By doing this, abuse of the judicial system and harassment are avoided.
  • Estoppel by Deed: Estoppel of this type prohibits a person from denying the accuracy of any information included in a deed they have performed.
  • Equitable Estoppel: Estoppel of this type prohibits a person from denying the accuracy of any information included in a deed they have performed.
  • Promissory Estoppel: The term Promissory Estoppel is frequently used in relation to contracts. Whether or not a formal contract was made, promissory estoppel shields a party who relied on a reasonable promise from another party and subsequently suffered a large financial loss due to the other party’s violation.

estoppel principle: Exceptions

The exceptions from the estoppel doctrine are as follows:

  • When both parties are fully informed about everything related to their subject, this doctrine is not applicable.
  • Statutes and regulations are immune from estoppel. It shouldn’t go against the laws and regulations.
  • It wouldn’t apply in situations where one party acted or made a judgment beyond the scope of his authority.
  • It cannot be utilized by sovereign acts or the government.

In general, estoppels function to establish a condition of facts that play a crucial role in altering the parties’ potential legal rights, since the parties’ rights are determined by distinct facts and legal frameworks. The applicable estoppel may be utilized to establish a cause of action, provide a defense to a cause of action, or have any other clear-cut effect on the evidence that determines whether a claim is successful or unsuccessful.

Doctrine of Estoppel FAQs

  1. What are the limitations to estoppel?

The parties must already be involved in a legal partnership. There had to have been a harmful reliance on the assurance. It cannot be unfair for the promisor to retract their statement.

  • What are the essential conditions for doctrine of estoppel?
  • A person must have made a representation to another person, which could have taken any shape, including a declaration, an act, or an omission.
  • The depiction in question has to be of a factual presence, rather than a promise or intention for the future.
  • It is necessary that the representation was intended to be trusted.
  • What are the consequences of estoppel?

In general terms, a promissory estoppel agreement will bind the parties in the same way that a legitimate contract would. A court may award expectation damages or reliance damages to a party who violates a promissory estoppel duty.

  • Who can claim estoppel?

If someone creates a representation and persuades someone else to believe it, they cannot later retract it if the other person has acted on it.

  • What is the objective of estoppel?

A legal doctrine known as estoppel forbids someone from claiming facts that run counter to prior assertions or deeds. Therefore, someone cannot use estoppel to refute a statement they have made or an action they have taken in the past.

  • What is the difference between doctrine of estoppel and promissory estoppel?

The distinction between the two theories stems from the fact that, in contrast to proprietary estoppel, promissory estoppel is not limited to the unintentional benefit of an already-existing legal relationship between a promisor and a promisee; rather, it also addresses the variation or abandonment of rights.

  • Is estoppel a civil or criminal case?

Although it is addressed in several sections of the Evidence Act and the Civil Procedure Code, the idea of issuing estoppel is applied in both criminal and civil proceedings. Section 115 of the Evidence Act distinguishes between the concept of res judicata principles of “issue estoppel” and “rule estoppel.”

  • Does estoppel apply in arbitration?

The legal doctrines of res judicata and issue estoppel may be applied to preclude a party from presenting claims or arguments in arbitration that may be construed as materially impairing the party’s substantive rights.

  • Which Online rjs coaching is best for RJS preparation?

The reputable Jaipur Online rjs coaching program “Jyoti Judiciary Coaching” aids students in getting ready for the RJS exam. A systematic approach to RJS test preparation is made possible by Jyoti Judiciary, the top offline and online RJS coaching program in Jaipur. Their curriculum has been carefully designed to cover all the subjects and courses required for passing the Rajasthan Judicial Service Examinations.

  1. Which coaching is best for judiciary?

The most effective judiciary coaching in Jaipur is provided by Jyoti Judiciary Coaching. The objective is to create a comfortable learning environment for the students. It makes the difficult task seem easy, which increases the likelihood of achieving the desired outcome. The objective at Jyoti Judiciary is to give students the best possible education possible. The Institute pledges to use every resource at its disposal to provide you with the finest preparation for the Judicial Services entrance examinations.

With the goal of giving students the best coaching available for law entrance exams including the CLAT, AILET, and various other numerous state judiciary exams, Jyoti Judiciary Coaching, India’s Finest educational Platform, was established. Come enrol now with Jyoti Judiciary!

For any latest news, legal topics, judiciary exams notifications, patterns, etc watch Jyoti Judiciary’s YouTube channel for legal videos for any updates at

Leave a Comment