From Crime Scene To Conviction: Criminal Profiling In India

April 15, 2024
Criminal Profiling In India

Criminal profiling beams as an illumination in the maze-like environment of crime investigation, where information can be as inconspicuous as shadows and criminals can look like they vanish without a trace remaining. This method, which is becoming increasingly commonplace worldwide, offers important insights into the psychological states of offenders, helping law enforcement organizations negotiate the difficult surroundings of crime scenes to secure convictions. 

Using criminal profiling is an essential component of enhancing the effectiveness of investigation and ensuring justice in India, where combating criminal activity is an ongoing challenge.

what is criminal profiling? 

  • As per the criminal profiling meaning, it is the technique of using a methodical observational process to identify and assess particular traits of an offender who has committed a particular crime. It is also termed as offender profiling.
  • It is also a study of the facts surrounding the crime, the forensic evidence, the victims, and the crime scene. With the aid of criminologists and behaviour scientists, it is used to comprehend the fundamental psychology of the criminal.
  • They visit the crime scene and attempt to learn not just the criminal’s background but also the victims, as it is crucial to comprehend the victim’s background in order to comprehend the fundamental notion or thought that underlies any crime. 
  • The criminal profiler can create a picture of any suspect by using information from the victim’s past, the crime scene, and the pattern of the crime to assist him comprehend the criminal’s behaviour. However, it is imperative to keep in mind that this is merely the suspect’s “prediction.”

Criminal Profiling in India: Approaches

  • Geographical Approach: To infer relationships between crimes and the locations of criminals’ residences and places of employment.
  • Clinical Approach: Here, the criminals are believed to be experiencing dementia or other abnormalities of the mind. They carry out the inquiry with the assistance of insights from clinical psychology and psychiatry.
  • Investigative Psychology Approach: It develops psychological theories and methods to forecast the behavioural traits of offenders.
  • Typological Approach: It involves grouping offenders based on shared features by analysing the characteristics of crime scenes.

Criminal profiling: Purpose

  • The criminal justice system fights crime with the aid of criminal profiling.
  • This provides information about the criminal’s mentality and decision-making process and aids in the development of a successful capture strategy.
  • In order to expedite and improve the effectiveness of the investigation, this provides law enforcement authorities with a specific direction.
  • This helps to make the greatest use of the available resources by providing clarity on all issues.
  • Criminal profiling may potentially help identify the perpetrator.
  • This makes the offender’s motivation clear.
  • Criminal profiling is used to expedite the investigation process when traditional methods of inquiry prove fruitless.

Criminal Profiling: Different Phases

The evaluation of the numerous elements required for the creation of a profile constitutes the phases of criminal profiling. These stages serve as the cornerstones for predicting the type of offender. The phases of criminal profiling are as follows:

  • Antecedent: In this initial stage of criminal profiling, the analyst and investigator attempt to understand the offender’s mental state. In order to determine the motivation behind the crime, it is intended to evaluate the plan the offender had before the crime was committed. Knowing what motivated the criminal to commit the crime is helpful in this regard.
  • Approach and Technique: The analyst may forecast the way the crime was carried out, including what would have been the weapon of choice, a knife, a gun, etc., or the way it was carried out, a stabbing, a strangling, etc. It is also possible to predict why the victim was chosen.
  • Disposal of the Body: The third stage of criminal profiling is this. Analysing the process used to dispose of the body is part of this. This provides insight into the criminal’s mental state. For instance, the body was dismembered or disposed of in a single location.
  • Behaviour following an offense: Analysing the offender’s behaviour following the conduct of the crime is part of this. A clue about the offender’s behaviour can be found in things like the suspect’s cooperative behaviour during the inquiry. Interaction with the media, reaching out to investigators, maintaining communication with the investigating officer, etc.

criminal profiling in india is a confused and erratic practice. Any individual involved in wrongdoing will have a mental profile that combines both positive traits and those that characterize the behaviour of a certain social gathering, hoodlums. The aloof role of the guilty party cannot be lethally selected by any human’s psychical traits. Nevertheless, a few psychological peculiarities, such as social circumstances, determine the mental profile and social trajectory. These should be examined in detail while discussing the personality of the guilty individual. 

Criminal Profiling in India FAQs

  1. What are the factors of criminal profiling?

Inferring details about the physical, behavioural, emotional, psychological, and even occupational traits of alleged criminals, as well as their proven knowledge, skills, and abilities, is known as criminal profiling.

  1. For what types of crimes is profiling most suitable?

In situations involving hostage takers, rapists, arsonists, sexual murders, and identifying the authors of threatening letters, profilers are very useful. Profilers can more accurately forecast these criminals’ conduct by applying psychology.

  1. What are the limitations of offender profiling?

The foundation of profiling is made up of generalizations and assumptions about human behaviour, which aren’t necessarily true or appropriate in all situations. Because of this, the profile may end up being too wide or too narrow, which makes it challenging for investigators to use it efficiently.

  1. What is the validity of criminal profiling?

Comparing profiling to others who used the word criminal investigative analysis for the same technique, the former is noticeably less valid and dependable. These results validate the theory that calling profiling by a different name will probably lead to a more positive perception of it.

  1. Why is profiling important?

By examining behavioural patterns and additional indicators, the profile investigator hopes to make predictions about the likely traits of an unidentified perpetrator. The earliest attempts by criminologists to forecast a person’s likelihood of committing a crime and to explain a crime gave rise to criminal profiling.

  1. What are the strengths of profiling?

The top-down method has the advantage of being able to forecast future criminal activity and of rapidly narrowing down a suspect list based on their traits and actions. It can also be a helpful tool in investigations when there isn’t a lot of tangible proof.

  1. Is criminal profiling used in India?

The most popular method in the criminal justice system, particularly in India, is criminal profiling. It is primarily employed in the evaluation of those who have committed horrible crimes such as rape, murder, sexual homicides, etc. Because such crimes instil a significant deal of dread in society at large, they receive greater attention.

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